Simulation of Solidification
This article reviews the topic of computational thermodynamics and introduces the calculation of solidification paths for casting alloys. It discusses the calculation of thermophysical properties and the fundamentals of the modeling of solidification processes. The article describes several commonly used microstructure simulation methods and presents ductile iron casting as an example to demonstrate the ability of microstructure simulation. The predictions for the major defects of casting, such as porosity, hot tearing, and macrosegregation, are highlighted. Finally, several industry applications are presented.
This article provides an overview of the studies on computational modeling of the vacuum arc remelting (VAR) and electroslag remelting (ESR) processes. These models involve the axisymmetric analysis of the electromagnetic, flow, heat-transfer, and phase-change phenomena to predict the pool shape and thermal history of an ingot using two-dimensional axisymmetric models for VAR and ESR. Analysis of segregation of alloying elements during solidification that gives rise to macrolevel compositional nonuniformity in titanium alloy ingots is also described. The article discusses the important features of the control-volume-based computational method to review the unique aspects of the processes. Measurement of the properties of alloys and slags is explained and an analysis of the process variants for improving the predictive accuracy of the models is presented.