Input Data for Simulations
This article reviews the characterization methods for producing 3-D microstructural data sets. The methods include serial sectioning by mechanical material removal method and focused ion beam tomography method. The article describes how these data sets are used in realistic 3-D simulations of microstructural evolution during materials processing and materials response. It also explains how the 3-D experimental data are actually input and used in the simulations using phase-field modeling and finite-element modeling.
Grain boundaries are interfaces between crystallites of the same phase but different crystallographic orientation. They can be characterized as being low angle or high angle. This article discusses the measurements of grain-boundary energy with a brief summary of different schemes for measuring grain-boundary surface tension. The atomistic simulations of grain-boundary energy, measurement of grain-boundary migration and the techniques used to monitor grain-boundary migration are reviewed. Several considerations and effects influencing the computation of grain-boundary mobility are also discussed.