Nondestructive Evaluation of Materials
Thermal nondestructive evaluation (TNDE) is an indirect process, so that regardless of the form of energy used to excite the sample, interaction with the internal structure of a part occurs through the process of heat conduction. This article discusses the steady-state configuration and selective excitation configuration of the signal-generation mechanisms in thermal nondestructive evaluation methods. The three widely used approaches to TNDE are surface-excited thermography, vibrothermography, and thermoelastic stress analysis. The article provides information on the common features, characteristics, and limitations of these approaches.