Nondestructive Evaluation of Materials
This article discusses the principles and limitations of micromagnetic techniques, namely, magnetic Barkhausen noise (MBN) and magnetoacoustic emission (MAE). It also discusses various factors limiting the establishment of acceptance criteria for test components as they pertain to the successful application of MBN measurement and signal interpretation. The article provides an overview of basic magnetic phenomena and dynamics in ferromagnetic materials that underlie the origin of MBN emissions. It describes the changes in the domain structure of the ferromagnetic material under an applied external field. The relationship between uniaxial stress and angular-dependent strain is also discussed. The influence of stress on domain walls, and therefore, the generation of Barkhausen noise are described. The article also describes the directional and angular MBN measurements and provides information on detection, angular dependence, and advanced analysis methods of MBN emissions.