Computed tomography (CT) is an imaging technique that generates a three-dimensional (3-D) volumetric image of a test piece. This article illustrates the basic principles of CT and provides information on the types, applications, and capabilities of CT systems. A comparison of performance characteristics for film radiography, real-time radiography, and X-ray computed tomography is presented in a table. A functional block diagram of a typical computed tomography system is provided. The article discusses CT scanning geometry that is used to acquire the necessary transmission data. It also provides information on digital radiography, image processing and analysis, dual-energy imaging, and partial angle imaging, of a CT system.