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ASM Handbook

Nondestructive Evaluation of Materials

Edited by
Aquil Ahmad
Aquil Ahmad
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Leonard J. Bond
Leonard J. Bond
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ASM International
Volume
17
ISBN electronic:
978-1-62708-190-0
Publication date:
2018
Book Chapter

Film Radiography[1]

By
Claudia Kropas-Hughes
Claudia Kropas-Hughes
Revising author
Air Force Life Cycle Management Center
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Published:
2018
Page range:
410 - 435
Publication history
August 21, 2018

Abstract

Film radiography requires the development of the exposed film so that the latent image becomes visible for viewing. It describes the general characteristics of film, including speed, gradient, and graininess, and the factors affecting film selection and exposure time. The article discusses the three major inspection techniques for tubular sections, namely, the double-wall, double-image technique; the double-wall, single-image technique; and the single-wall, single-image technique. It illustrates the arrangements of penetrameters and identification markers for the radiography of plates, cylinders, and flanges. The article discusses various control methods, including the use of lead screens; protection against backscatter and scatter from external objects; and the use of masks, diaphragms, collimators, and filtration. The radiographic appearance of specific types of flaws is also discussed. The article concludes with a discussion on two methods of radiographic film processing: manual and automatic processing.

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Claudia Kropas-Hughes, 2018. "Film Radiography", Nondestructive Evaluation of Materials, Aquil Ahmad, Leonard J. Bond

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