Machine vision, also referred to as computer vision or intelligent vision, is a means of simulating the image recognition and analysis capabilities of the human eye and brain system with digital techniques. The machine vision functionality is extremely useful in inspection, supervision, and quality control applications. This article presents a variety of machine vision functions for different purposes and provides a comparison of machine and human vision capabilities in a table. It discusses the processes of a machine vision system: image acquisition, image preprocessing, image analysis, and image interpretation. The article provides information on the uses of machine vision systems in three categories of manufacturing applications: visual inspection, identification of parts, and guidance and control applications.