Nondestructive Evaluation of Materials
Nondestructive Evaluation of Manufactured Products
The potential for introducing defects during processing becomes greater as the relative density of pressed and sintered powder metallurgy (PM) parts increases and more multilevel parts with complex geometric shapes are produced. This article discusses the potential defects in pressed and sintered PM parts: density variations, compaction and ejection cracks, microlaminations, poor degree of sintering, and voids from prior lubricant agglomerates. It describes the various methods applicable to green compacts: direct-current resistivity testing, radiographic techniques, computed tomography, and gamma-ray density determination. The article also discusses the methods for automated nondestructive testing of pressed and sintered PM parts: acoustic methods-resonance testing, eddy current testing, magnetic bridge comparator testing, ultrasonic techniques, radiographic techniques, gamma-ray density determination, and visual inspection.