Biotribology of Medical Implants
The human internal environment plays a vital role in the friction and wear of implants and prosthetic devices. This article describes the tribological/wear behavior of implants. It discusses the classification of active tribological pairs, namely, amphiarthosis joints and diarthosis joints. The article details the classification of total knee replacement, depending on the type of mechanical stability, including nonconstrained knee replacement, semiconstrained knee replacement, and constrained knee replacement. It also discusses the classifications of passive tribological pairs, namely, total disc replacement in the spine, dental implants, and temporomandibular joint. It describes the various testing methods for characterizing the implant materials used in hip, knee, spine, and dental applications. The article also describes the typical standards used for testing wear behavior of tribological pairs, namely, hip-wear simulation standards, knee-wear simulation standards, and spinal disc-wear simulation standards.