There are huge numbers of publications and data available on ceramics, especially the basic types that cover their friction, wear, tribological mechanisms, high-temperature behavior, tribochemistry, and also lubrication conditions. This article summarizes the key overall research findings found in several comprehensive monographs. It discusses the types and properties of structural ceramics, as well as typical properties that govern the friction and wear of ceramics. The article reviews the superlow friction of silicon nitride and silicon carbide, and describes wear-protective hydrated tribochemical layers. It concludes with information on the tribological applications of structural ceramics and composites.