This article provides an overview of cavitation erosion with a specific focus on the estimation of mass loss. It describes the mechanisms of cavitation erosion and the types of laboratory devices to evaluate the resistance to cavitation erosion of materials. The laboratory devices include rotating disks, vibratory devices, cavitating liquid jets, and high-speed cavitation tunnels. The article discusses materials selection and surface protection to prevent cavitation erosion. It reviews the fluid-structure interaction that plays a role in cavitation erosion particularly for compliant materials. The article provides information on the numerical prediction of cavitation erosion damage by the finite element method (FEM).