Ores, which consist of the primary valuable mineral, predominant gangue content, valuable by-products, and detrimental impurities, are extracted and directed to mineral processing. This article describes the mineral processing facilities, such as crushers, grinders, concentrators, separators, and flotation devices that are used for particle size reduction, separation of particles according to their settling rates in fluids and dewatering of concentrate particles. It explains the basic principles, flow diagrams, ore concentrate preparation methods, and equipment of major types of metallurgical processes, including pyrometallurgical, hydrometallurgical, and electrometallurgical processes.
Metal casting is the manufacturing method in which a metal or an alloy is melted, poured into a mold, and allowed to solidify. Typical uses of castings include municipal hardware, water distribution systems (pipes, pumps, and valves), automotive components (engine blocks, brakes, steering and suspension components, etc.), prosthetics, and gas turbine engine hardware. This introduction explains the steps involved in making a casting using a simplified flow diagram, and discusses the ferrous and nonferrous alloys used for metal casting.