Wear is mechanically-induced surface damage that results in the progressive removal of material. Because different types of wear occur in machinery, many different types of wear tests have been developed to evaluate its effects on materials and surface treatments. This article provides an explanation on mechanisms, forms (sliding, impact, and rolling) and the causes of wear. It describes the wear measuring methods, including the mass loss method, wear width method, and scar depth method. The units used to report wear vary with type of wear and with the purpose for which the data are to be used. Listing the considerations of tribosystem analysis, the article provides information on selection of ASTM wear test methods grouped by wear type. The article concludes by tabulating the testing geometries and parameters that are commonly controlled and reported when conducting wear tests.