Introduction to Ceramics and Glasses
This article provides an overview of the types, properties, and applications of traditional and advanced ceramics and glasses. Principal product areas for traditional ceramics include whitewares, glazes, porcelain enamels, structural clay products, cements, and refractories. Advanced ceramics include electronic ceramics, optical ceramics, magnetic ceramics, and structural ceramics.
Ceramic and glass manufacturers take environmental regulations into consideration during all stages of the product cycle, from research and development to purchasing, processing, end use, and disposal. Ceramic and glass products are finding application in the construction industry and as raw materials for other processes. This article describes the recycling of in-process scrap and industrial wastes (fly ash, red mud, metallurgical waste, and other waste products), and applications of these recycled products. It focuses on environmental regulations such as Resource Conservation and Recovery Act and Clean Air Act. The Clean Air Act requires all states to meet minimum emissions standards for nitrogen-oxygen compounds, volatile organic compounds, and carbon monoxide.