Mechanical Testing and Evaluation
Fracture Toughness and Fracture Mechanics
The fracture-mechanics technology has significantly improved the ability to design safe and reliable structures and identify and quantify the primary parameters that affect structural integrity of materials. This article provides a discussion on fracture toughness of notched materials by explaining the ductile-to-brittle fracture transition and by correlating KId, KIc, and Charpy V-notch impact energy absorptions. It highlights the effects of constraint, temperature, and loading rate on the fracture transition. The article discusses the applications of fracture mechanism in limiting of operating stresses. It describes the mechanisms, testing methods, and effecting parameters of two main categories of fracture mechanics: linear-elastic fracture mechanics and elastic-plastic fracture mechanics. The article concludes with a discussion on the three major progressive stages of fatigue: crack initiation, crack growth, and fracture on the final cycle.