Mechanical Testing and Evaluation
This article describes the tests for the common types of fabricated components and modeling of metal deformation. It provides an overview of component testing and briefly reviews the relationship of mechanical properties in the process of mechanical design for static loads, cyclic loads, dynamic loads, and high-temperature materials. The article describes the general properties related to monotonic stress-strain behavior of steels. It also discusses materials properties and operating stresses as well as other factors, such as part shape and environmental effects, which play significant roles in the design process of components.
Forming processes can be divided into three major categories: bulk forming, sheet-metal forming, and semisolid forming and polymer extrusion. This article introduces each process category with a description of the constitutive models. It outlines the required properties for process modeling and describes the test methods for determining these properties. The article discusses several compression tests used to determine stress-strain curves for bulk forming and tensile tests used to obtain stress-strain curves for sheet-metal forming. The article concludes with information on the measurement of viscosity of semisolid alloy materials by using three types of viscometers: the coaxial cylinder viscometer, the cone-and-plate viscometer, and the capillary viscometer.