This article reviews the planning of fatigue experiments, including the structure of a test plan, randomization, and nuisance variables. The statistical characterization of the S/N (stress/life) or e/N (strain/life) response of a single material tested under a single condition is discussed. The techniques for defining a mean fatigue curve and evaluating scatter or variability about that mean are explained. The article presents the standard techniques for statistical characterization of the fatigue strength or fatigue limit of a single material by use of the Probit method, the up-and-down (staircase) method, and two-point procedures. Stress-level selection methods are also presented. The article discusses the comparison of the fatigue behavior of two or more materials for data generated at a single stress or strain level. Treatments to compare data generated over a range of stress or strain levels are included. The article also summarizes the consolidation of fatigue data generated at different conditions.