Fracture toughness is an empirical material property that is determined by one or more of a number of standard fracture toughness test methods. This article describes the fracture toughness test methods in a chronological outline, beginning with the methods that use the linear-elastic parameter. After this, the methods that use the nonlinear parameters are discussed. The article reviews some of the work in progress to update the standard test methods, namely, common fracture toughness test method and transition fracture toughness test method. Finally, an overview of fracture toughness testing for ceramic and polymer materials is provided.