Compression tests are used for subscale testing and characterizing the mechanical behavior of anisotropic materials. This article discusses the characteristics of deformation during axial compression testing, including deformation modes, compressive properties, and compression-test deformation mechanics. It describes the procedures for the use of compression testing for the measurement of the deformation and fracture properties of materials. The article provides a detailed discussion on the technique involved in determining the stress-strain behavior of metallic materials based on the ASTM E 9, "Compression Testing of Metallic Materials at Room Temperature." It also reviews the factors that influence the generation of test data for tests conducted in accordance with the ASTM E 9 and the capabilities of conventional universal testing machines for compression testing.