Corrosion: Fundamentals, Testing, and Protection
Phosphate Conversion Coatings
Phosphating is used in the metalworking industry to treat substrates like iron, steel, galvanized steel, aluminum, copper, and magnesium and its alloys. This article provides an overview of the types, uses, and theory of phosphate coatings and their formation. It also discusses the composition of phosphating baths, phosphate layers, and their analysis, as well as the process hardware necessary to realize these treatments. A summary of the different types of phosphate layers is tabulated, and the chemical formulas for a number of different phosphate compounds that are theoretically possible in crystalline phosphate layers are illustrated. The article presents four chemically important phosphating steps, namely, cleaning, activation or conditioning, phosphating, and posttreatment plus standard rinsing. It describes the physical and chemical properties by gravimetric analysis, chemical analysis, structure and morphology, thermal analysis, and alkaline resistance.