This article focuses on the effects of microscopic organisms and the by-products they produce on the electrochemical corrosion of metals. The general characteristics of the microorganisms that facilitate their influence on the electrochemistry of corrosion are discussed. The industries most often reported as being affected by microbiological corrosion are listed, along with the organisms usually implicated in the attack. The article explains that the influence of organisms can be addressed successfully for a corrosion control program by using four types of evidence: metallurgical, microbiological, chemical, and electrochemical. It provides information on the microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) of irons and steels, passive alloys (austenitic stainless steels), aluminum alloys, copper alloys, and composites. The article reviews the formation of microbial biofilms and macrofouling films. It also describes the general approaches taken to prevent MIC.