This article presents definitions, equations, and notational conventions that are used widely in statistical analysis. It provides information on a basic framework for the selection of a statistical test. The article outlines the basic elements common to all statistical tests. Illustrations of specific statistical tests and the concept of confidence limits are introduced. The article provides an overview of sampling issues, with guidance on both selecting a sampling method and determining the number of units to sample. One-way analysis of the variance, correlation, and simple regression are also illustrated.