Solidification Structures of Titanium Alloys
This article describes the development of heat-resistant titanium-base alloys and their classification into several microstructure categories based on their strengthening mechanisms. It explains the phase transformation in titanium-aluminum-base alloys and two peritectic reactions that take place in the titanium-aluminum system. The article also describes two approaches for controlling the orientation of the high-temperature alpha phase to achieve the required lamellar orientation by directional solidification in order to improve the strength and ductility of titanium-aluminum alloys. One approach is by seeding the alpha phase in the alloys, and the other is without seeding, by controlling the solidification path of alloys through appropriate alloying. The article discusses the grain refinement technique used to improve the ductility of cast titanium-aluminum alloys to a level of above 1" at room temperature and reasonable room temperature ductility in the as-cast condition. Finally, it provides information on the microstructures produced through various near-net shape manufacturing processes.