Metallurgy and Microstructure
This article provides information on the general structural features and origins of metals. The characteristic structural features of single-phase metals and alloys, such as grain structure and substructure, are discussed. The article also describes the major types of multiphase structures and macrostructure of metals and alloys.
This article describes crystallographic terms and concepts and illustrates various crystal structures. The crystallographic terms described include crystal structure, unit cell, crystal system, lattice, structure symbols, space-group notation, structure prototype, atom positions, point groups, and equivalent positions. The article presents a table of assorted structure types of metallurgical interest arranged according to the Pearson symbol. It also schematically illustrates atom positions, prototypes, structure symbols, space-group notations, and lattice parameters for some of the simple metallic crystals. The article concludes with a description of some of the most significant crystal defects such as point defects, line defects, and stacking faults.