This article begins with a schematic illustration of a eutectic system in which the two components of the system have the same crystal structure. Eutectic systems form when alloying additions cause a lowering of the liquidus lines from both melting points of the pure elements. The article describes the aluminum-silicon eutectic system and the lead-tin eutectic system. It discusses eutectic morphologies in terms of lamellar and fibrous eutectics, regular and irregular eutectics, and the interpretation of eutectic microstructures. The article examines the solidification of a binary alloy of exactly eutectic composition. It concludes with a discussion on terminal solid solutions.