Eutectoid and peritectoid transformations are classified as solid-state invariant transformations. This article focuses primarily on the structures from eutectoid transformations with emphasis on the classic iron-carbon system of steel. It reviews peritectoid phase equilibria that are very common in several binary systems. The addition of substitutional alloying elements causes the eutectoid composition and temperature to shift in the iron-carbon system. The article graphically illustrates the effect of various substitutional alloying elements on the eutectoid transformation temperature and effective carbon content. The partitioning effect of substitutional alloying elements, such as chromium, manganese, and silicon, in pearlitic steel is also illustrated.