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ASM Handbook

Metalworking: Sheet Forming

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S.L. Semiatin
S.L. Semiatin
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Reference Information



This article is a compilation of definitions of the terms related to sheet metal forming and fabrication.


This article presents formulas for calculating the following: effective stress, strain, and strain rate (isotropic material) in arbitrary coordinates and in principal coordinates; compression testing, tension testing, and torsion testing of isotropic material; and Barlat's anisotropic yield function Yld2000-2d for plane-stress deformation of sheet material. It also contains formulas related to flat (sheet) rolling, conical-die extrusion, wire drawing, bending, and deep drawing of cups from sheet metal.


Hardness conversions are empirical relationships that are defined by conversion tables limited to specific categories of materials. This article tabulates examples of the published hardness conversion equations for various materials including steels, cement carbides, and white cast irons. It informs that when making hardness correlations, it is best to consult ASTM E 140. The article tabulates the approximate Rockwell B hardness and Rockwell C hardness conversion numbers for nonaustenitic steels according to ASTM E 140. It also tabulates the approximate equivalent hardness numbers for Brinell hardness numbers and Vickers (diamond pyramid) hardness numbers for steel.

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2006. "Reference Information", Metalworking: Sheet Forming, S.L. Semiatin

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