This article describes the basis of operating stress maps based on failure assessment diagrams, which are used to assess potential fracture in the whole range of conditions from brittle to fully plastic behavior. It discusses the factors influencing the process of constructing an operating stress map based on the principles used in constructing a residual strength diagram. These include plane strain fracture toughness, net section yield, and empiricism. The article details the fatigue crack growth behavior based on stress-corrosion cracking rates and corrosion fatigue factor. It summarizes the linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM) concepts for explaining the application of LEFM in damage tolerance analysis. The article exemplifies operating stress maps in a variety of applications.