This article summarizes the various kinds of gear wear, including fatigue, impact fracture, wear, and stress rupture, describes how gear life in service is estimated. It presents the rules concerning lubricants in designing gearing and analyzing failures of gears. The article presents the equations for determining surface durability and life of gears. It tabulates the situations and concepts of pitting failures in gears. The article analyzes some of the more common flaws that affect the life of gear teeth. It reviews the components in the design and structure of each gear and/or gear train that must be considered in conjunction with the teeth.