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ASM Handbook


ASM International
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Fundamentals of the Machining Process



The relative motion between the tool and the workpiece during cutting compresses the work material near the tool and induces a shear deformation that forms the chip. This article discusses the fundamental nature of the deformation process associated with machining. It describes the mechanics of the machining process, and presents the principles of the orthogonal cutting model. The article also analyzes the effect of workpiece properties on chip formation.


This article describes the basic concepts of the complex factors that influence the forces, power, and stresses in machining. It provides an overview of the models of orthogonal (that is, two force) machining of metals as they are useful for understanding the basic mechanics of machining and can be extended for modeling of the production processes. The article discusses stresses on the shear plane, stresses distributions on the rake face, uniform stresses on the rake face, and nonuniform stress distributions on the rake face. It also examines the specific power consumption in turning, drilling, and milling operations. The article concludes with a section on the factors affecting specific power.

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1989. "Fundamentals of the Machining Process", Machining

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