This article discusses the types of adaptive control (AC) systems for metal cutting according to the AC strategies used. These include adaptive control with optimization (ACO), adaptive control with constraints (ACC), and geometric adaptive control (GAC). The article details the milling and grinding systems based on the ACO strategy. It reviews the fundamentals of ACC systems followed by a description of a particular ACC system for a turning operation. The article also describes the basic characteristics of GAC systems and presents a particular GAC system for the turning of cylindrical parts. It examines the issues in the AC systems such as tool wear/breakage. Trends in the AC systems such as variable-gain ACC systems and integration of adaptive control into CAD/CAM/CIM systems are also discussed.