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ASM Handbook

Metalworking: Bulk Forming

Edited by
S.L. Semiatin
S.L. Semiatin
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ASM International
Volume
14A
ISBN electronic:
978-1-62708-185-6
Publication date:
2005
Book Chapter

Constitutive Equations

By
Amit Ghosh
Amit Ghosh
University of Michigan
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Published:
2005
Page range:
563 - 586
Publication history
April 03, 2006

Abstract

The constitutive relations for metalworking include elements of behavior at ambient temperature as well as high-temperature response. This article presents equations for strain hardening and strain-rate-sensitive flow, with alternate sections on empirically determined properties, followed by the models of constitutive behavior. It provides a discussion on creep mechanisms involving dislocation and diffusional flow, such as the Nabarro-Herring creep and the Coble creep. The equations for the several creep rates are also presented. Research on the mechanism of the superplastic flow in fine-grain metals has encompassed many ideas, such as the diffusional creep, dislocation creep with diffusional accommodation at grain boundaries, and concepts of grain-mantle deformation. The article concludes with information on the kinetics of superplastic deformation processes, including low stress behavior, concurrent grain growth, and high stress behavior.

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Amit Ghosh, 2005. "Constitutive Equations", Metalworking: Bulk Forming, S.L. Semiatin

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