Forging Design Involving Parting Line and Grain Flow
Control of grain flow is one of the major advantages of shaping metal parts by rolling, forging, or extrusion. This article shows the effects of anisotropy on mechanical properties. Cylindrical forgings commonly have a straight parting line located in a diametral plane. The alternate classes of parting lines are called either "straight" or "broken" for brevity. Regardless of whether draft is applied or natural, the forging will have its maximum spread or girth at the parting line. Proper placement of the parting line ensures that the principal grain flow direction within the forging will be parallel to the principal direction of service loading. The article reviews the mutual dependence of parting line and forging process. It provides a checklist for the forging designer that suggests a systematic approach for establishing parting line location. Finally, the article contains examples, with illustrations of parting line locations, accompanied by tables of design parameters.