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ASM Handbook

Failure Analysis and Prevention

Edited by
William T. Becker
William T. Becker
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Roch J. Shipley
Roch J. Shipley
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ASM International
Volume
11
ISBN electronic:
978-1-62708-180-1
Publication date:
2002
Book Chapter

Scanning Electron Microscopy

By
L.S. Chumbley
L.S. Chumbley
Iowa State University
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L.D. Hanke
L.D. Hanke
Materials Evaluation and Engineering Inc.
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Published:
2002
Page range:
516 - 526
Publication history
November 01, 2002

Abstract

The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) is one of the most versatile instruments for investigating the microstructure of metallic materials. This article highlights the development of SEM technology and describes the operation of basic systems in an SEM, including the electron optical column, signal detection and display equipment, and vacuum system. It discusses the preparation of samples for observation using an SEM and describes the application of SEM in fractography. If the surface remains unaffected and undamaged by events subsequent to the actual failure, it is often a simple matter to determine the failure mode by the use of an SEM. In cases where the surface is altered after the initial failure, the case may not be so straightforward. The article presents typical examples that illustrate these points. Image dependence on the microscope type and operating parameters is also discussed.

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L.S. Chumbley, L.D. Hanke, 2002. "Scanning Electron Microscopy", Failure Analysis and Prevention, William T. Becker, Roch J. Shipley

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