Tools and Techniques in Failure Analysis
This article describes the preliminary stages and general procedures, techniques, and precautions employed in the investigation and analysis of metallurgical failures that occur in service. The most common causes of failure characteristics are described for fracture, corrosion, and wear failures. The article provides information on the synthesis and interpretation of results from the investigation. Finally, it presents key guidelines for conducting a failure analysis.
This article reviews photographic principles, namely, visual examination, field photographic documentation, and laboratory photographic documentation, as applied to failure analysis and the specific techniques employed in both the field and laboratory. It provides information on the photographic equipment used in failure analysis and on film and digital photography. The article describes the basics of photography and the uses of different types of lighting in photography of a fractured surface. The article also addresses the techniques involved in macrophotography and microscopic photography as well as other special techniques.