Welding Fundamentals and Processes
Characterization and Modeling of the Heat Source
Three types of energy are used primarily as direct heat sources for fusion welding: electric arcs, laser beams, and electron beams. This article reviews the physical phenomena that influence the input-energy distribution of the heat source for fusion welding. It also discusses several simplified and detailed heat-source models that have been used in the modeling of arc welding, high-energy-density welding, and resistance welding.