Welding Fundamentals and Processes
Fusion welding induces residual stresses and distortion, which may result in loss of dimensional control, costly rework, and production delays. In thermal analysis, conductive heat transfer is considered through the use of thermal transport, heat-input, and material models that provide values for the applied welding heat input. This article describes how the solid-phase transformations that occur during the thermal cycle produced by welding lead to irreversible plastic deformation known as transformation plasticity. Residual stress and welding distortion are also discussed.