Corrosion: Environments and Industries
This article discusses the methods of pulp production, pulp processing, pulp bleaching, and paper manufacturing. It describes various types of digesters, their construction materials, the corrosion problems encountered, and methods to protect these digesters from corrosion. The article examines the corrosion problems in high-yield mechanical pulping, sulfite process, neutral sulfite semichemical pulping, chemical recovery, tall oil plants, wastewater treatment, and recovery boilers. It explains the stages of chlorine-based and nonchlorine bleaching, process water reuse for elemental chlorine-free and nonchlorine bleaching stages, selection of material for bleaching equipment, developments in oxygen bleaching, and the use of highly corrosion-resistant materials for bleach plant equipment. The article reviews the materials used in the construction of paper machine components and specific corrosion problems that affect them. It provides a discussion on the composition and corrosive nature of white water. The article also presents a description of specific corrosion mechanisms. It addresses the corrosion and chemical recovery associated with kraft pulping liquors.