High-temperature exposure of materials occurs in many applications such as power plants (coal, oil, natural gas, and nuclear), land-based gas turbine and diesel engines, gas turbine engines for aircraft, marine gas turbine engines for shipboard use, waste incineration, high-temperature fuel cells, and missile components. This article discusses high-temperature corrosion in boilers, diesel engines, gas turbines, and waste incinerators. Boilers are affected by stress rupture failures, waterside corrosion failures, fireside corrosion failures, and environmental cracking failures. Contamination of combustion fuel in diesel engines can cause high-temperature corrosion. Gas turbine engines are affected by hot corrosion. Refractory-lined incinerators and alloy-lined incinerators are discussed. The article provides case studies for each component failure.