Corrosion in the Nuclear Power Industry
This article reviews a series of serious corrosion problems that have plagued the light water reactor (LWR) industry. It discusses the complex corrosion mechanisms involved, and the development of practical engineering solutions for their mitigation. The article contains tables that present the corrosion history of LWRs, and the ten most expensive operation and maintenance costs of corrosion for a particular reactor site.
This article focuses on environmentally assisted cracking (EAC) of structural materials in the boiling water reactor (BWR), reactor pressure vessel, core internals, and ancillary piping. It discusses the effects of water chemistry on materials degradation, mitigation approaches, and their impact on aging management programs. The article reviews the effects of materials, environment, and stress factors on the cracking susceptibility of ferritic and austenitic structural alloys in BWRs. It describes the methods, such as data-based life-prediction approaches and mechanisms-informed life-prediction approaches for predicting the cracking kinetics in BWRs. The article presents several EAC mitigation techniques for BWR components, namely material solutions, stress solutions, and environmental solutions.