Powder Metallurgy Nickel and Nickel Alloys
This article discusses the methods for producing powder metallurgy (PM) nickel powders, including carbonyl process, hydrometallurgical process, hydrogen reduction process, and atomization process, as well as their applications. It describes three processes for producing nickel alloy powders: water atomization, high-pressure water atomization, and gas atomization. The article also provides information on the applications of PM hot isostatic pressing in the oil and gas industry.
Superalloys are predominantly nickel-base alloys that are strengthened by solid-solution elements including molybdenum, tungsten, cobalt, and by precipitation of a Ni3(Al, Ti) type compound designated as gamma prime and/or a metastable Ni3Nb precipitate designated as gamma double prime. This article provides a discussion on the conventional processing, compositions, characteristics, mechanical properties, and applications of powder metallurgy (PM) superalloys. The conventional processing of PM superalloys involves production of spherical prealloyed powder, screening to a suitable maximum particle size, blending the powder to homogenize powder size distribution, loading powder into containers, vacuum outgassing and sealing the containers, and consolidating the powder to full density. PM superalloys include Rene 95, IN-100, LC Astroloy, Udimet 720, N18, ME16, RR1000, Rene 88DT, PA101, MERL 76, AF2-1DA, Inconel 706, AF115, and KM4. The article reviews specialized PM superalloy processes and technical issues in the usage of PM superalloys.