Surface Engineering for Chemical Activity
A catalyst must be designed to have high activity and selectivity. The chemical process being catalyzed should have high productivity within a specified reactor volume with high reaction rates for the desired reactions and low rates for undesired reaction pathways. This article reviews the most general catalyst preparation procedures: impregnation, ion exchange, and precipitation. It explains the various categorizations of carrier materials: active carriers such as alumina, silica-alumina, zeolites, titanium oxide, and carbon in powder or particulate form; inert carriers such as silica, in powder or particulate form; and structural supports such as the monoliths upon which catalyzed carders are deposited. The article also describes catalyst powder processing techniques for tableting, beading, extrusion, spray drying and honeycombing.