Carbonitriding is a modified form of carburizing that involves the introduction and diffusion of atomic nitrogen into the surface steel during carburization. This article discusses the composition, depth, and hardenability of a carburized case, and demonstrates how to control atmosphere in batch and continuous furnaces. It discusses the most important considerations in the selection of carbonitriding temperature. The article also describes the processing factors for minimizing retained austenite in the carbonitrided case. Hardness testing and carbonitriding of powder metallurgy parts, quenching and tempering of carbonitrided steel parts, and applications of carbonitriding are also covered in the article.