Fabrication Characteristics of Carbon and Low-Alloy Steels
Steel sheet is widely used for industrial and consumer products, partly because it is relatively strong, easily joined, and readily available at moderate cost. This article discusses the mechanical properties and formability of steel sheet, the use of circle grid analysis to identify the properties of complicated shapes, and various simulative forming tests. The mechanical properties of steel sheet that influence its forming characteristics, either directly or indirectly, can be measured by uniaxial tension testing. The article covers the effects of steel composition, steelmaking practices, and metallic coatings, as well as the correlation between microstructure and formability. A guide to the selection of steel sheet is also included. The formability of steel sheet is related to various microstructural features of the sheet. The article describes some of the forming characteristics of the more commonly used formable grades. It also lists the typical mechanical properties for common grades of hot-rolled and cold-rolled steel sheets.