Structural ceramics refers to a large family of ceramic materials used in an extensive range of applications. Included in this family are both monolithic ceramics and ceramic-ceramic composites. Chemically, structural ceramics include oxides, nitrides, borides, and carbides. The ability to maintain mechanical strength and dimensional tolerances at high temperature makes them suitable for a wide range of high-temperature applications. Many processing routes are possible for structural ceramics and are important because the microstructure, and therefore the properties, are developed during processing. This Article discusses the major processing steps: raw material preparation, forming and fabrication, thermal processing and finishing. In addition, it provides useful information on the properties and applications of major structural ceramics, namely, alumina ceramics, aluminum titanate, silicon carbide, boron carbide, zirconia, toughened ceramics, silicon nitride, silicon-aluminum-oxynitride, and composite ceramics.