A coating can be defined as a substance spread over a surface to provide protection or to serve decorative purposes. This article discusses two industrial coating components, namely, nonvolatile components such as the resin or binder, pigments, and any additives that may be incorporated into the formulation; and volatile components such as solvents, or water in emulsions and their composition. It provides general information on volatile organic compounds. The article describes the film-forming mechanisms of various coating types, namely, lacquers, chemically converting coatings, latex coatings, alkyds and other resins, which cure by oxidation, moisture-curing polyurethanes and inorganic zinc primers, and powder coatings. The article concludes with a discussion on the functions of the primer, intermediate coat, and topcoat in coating systems.