This article presents the major thermal spray processes and their subsets, presenting each of the commercially significant processes together with some of their important variations. Each process is presented along with the attributes that influence coating structure and performance. The article summarizes the essential equipment components and necessary controls. The various thermal spray processes are conventional flame spray, detonation gun, high-velocity oxyfuel spray, electric arc spray, and plasma arc spray. Other processes, such as cold spray, underwater plasma arc spray, and extended-arc and other high-energy plasma arc spray, are also considered.