Tempering of Induction Hardened Steels
Tempering of induction-hardened steel is a form of subcritical heat treatment, primarily carried out to increase ductility, toughness, and dimensional stability, to relieve residual stresses, and to obtain specific values of mechanical properties. This article describes tempering with emphasis on different time-temperature exposure requirements for furnace and induction tempering. It discusses two parametric methods for correlating equivalent time-temperature condition: Hollomon-Jaffe tempering correlation and Grange-Baughman tempering correlation. The article describes different methods of induction tempering, namely, single-shot, progressive or continuous, scanning, and static heating methods. The effects of induction heating variables and hardenability on tempering response are examined. The article also provides examples of how tempering affects the mechanical properties of induction-hardened steels.