The warm and hot working of metals provide the ability to shape important materials into component shapes that are useful in a variety of applications requiring strength, toughness, and ductility. This article focuses on a variety of metals that can be hot or warm worked, and describes the characteristics and processing considerations of each metal. It discusses forging because it is a versatile metalworking process and performed at cold, warm, and hot working temperatures. The article also presents the applications of steels, stainless steels, aluminum alloys, titanium alloys, superalloys, and copper alloys.
This article focuses on the specific features of carbon steels and alloy steels that are pertinent to heating by induction for warm and hot working processes. It provides a detailed account of the effects of various microstructures on austenitization kinetics for AISI 1045 steels. The article explains the factors to be considered for induction heating of various steel alloys. It describes the temperature and compositional issues that should be considered in the forging of steels that are induction heated.