Quenching is a widely used technique to strengthen titanium alloys. This article presents the metallurgical and structural background underlying the specific techniques applied in the quenching of various titanium alloys, and the ways to control and reduce residual stresses induced from quenching or other thermal or mechanical processes. It discusses the types and microstructures of titanium alloys, namely, alpha, alpha-beta, and beta alloys, and describes the general effects of the various heat treatments. The article provides information on quenching media, quenching rate, section size, and martensitic transformation in quenched titanium alloys. It shows how residual stresses in titanium alloys are evaluated and controlled. Finally, the article describes the stress-relief treatments used to reduce residual stresses.